Sforza

Sforza comes from an Italian surname, famously associated with a ruling family in Renaissance Italy, in Milan, a powerful family from 1450 to 1535. The name comes from Italian sforzare meaning “to force; to strain”, from Vulgar Latin *exfortiare via ex- (out, away) and fortiare< fortiō< fortis (strong, powerful).

The name was occasionally used as a given name in Renaissance Italy.

Origin: Proto-Indo-European

Meaning: “to force; to strain”

Usage: Medieval Italian

Maynard

Maynard comes from an English surname of Norman origin which derived from Germanic personal name Mainard, Meinard meaning “strength + hardy”, composed of Germanic elements magin (strength) and hard (brave, hardy).

Origin: Proto-Indo-European

Meaning: “strength + brave, hardy”

Usage: English

Variants:

  • Maynerd (English)
  • Mainard (English, French)
  • Meinard (Dutch)
  • Meindert (Dutch)
  • Meinhard (German)
  • Meginhard (German)

Ertuğrul

Ertuğrul is a Turkish male name, the name of the father of Osman I, founder of the Ottoman Empire. The name is composed of Turkish er (man) and tuğrul (referring to a mythical bird of prey, perhaps based on a falcon).

Ertuğrul is also a Turkish surname originating from the given name.

Origin: Proto-Turkic

Meaning: “man + bird of prey”, possibly in reference to a falcon”

Usage: Turkish

Pronunciation: in Turkish the ğ is a silent letter so Ertuğrul in Turkish is pronounced as er-tu-rel (Forvo)

Variants:

  • Tuğrul (Turkish)

Ertuğrul ارطغرل‎ (Arabic)

Clinton

Clinton comes from an English surname, a locational name referring to someone who came from a town called Glimpton in Oxfordshire meaning “settlement by the Glym river”, the name meaning “bright stream” in Brittonic; or it could be derived from Glinton, made up of Low Middle German glinde “enclosure”, “fence” + tun “enclosure, settlement”.

Origin: Proto-Indo-Europea

Meaning: “settlement by the Glym river” or “enclosure”, “fence” + “settlement, enclosure”

Usage: English

Nicknames: Clint

Alaia

Alaia is a Basque female name meaning “joyful, happy” from Basque alai (joyous, happy) which either derives from Latin alacer (lively, brisk; glad, happy, cheerful) via an uncertain origin; or it cold have been borrowed from Spanish alhaja “jewel; gem” which ultimately derives from an Arabic origin.

Spelled Alaïa it’s a French surname, the French form of Alia (an Arabic female name “exalted, loft, high, sublime”), and Alaia is also an Italian surname though I’m not sure if it also derives from Arabic or a different source entirely.

Alaia is also a variant spelling of Alia/Aliyah, an Arabic female name, the feminine form of Ali meaning “high, exalted, lofty, sublime”. 

Origin: uncertain; Arabic

Meaning: from Basque “joyful, happy”; “high, exalted, lofty, sublime”

Usage: Basque, English (as a variant spelling of Alia)

Variants:

  • Alia (Arabic)
  • Alaya (English)
  • Aaliyah (English)

Lyall

Lyall comes from a Scottish surname via an Old Norse name, Liulfr. The second element derives from Old Norse úlfr meaning “wolf” while the first element of the name remains uncertain.

It’s also possible that Lyall originated as a pet-form of Lionel or Lyon, both meaning “lion”; it derives from Latin leō < Ancient Greek léōn which derives from an uncertain origin; it’s possible it could have been adopted from a non Indo-European source, perhaps from Proto-Semitic *labiʾ-, *labuʾ.

Incidentally, Lyall is a homophone of Lyle (which has a totally different etymology and means “island”).

Origin: Proto-Indo-European; uncertain, possibly from a Proto-Semitic origin

Meaning: a shortened form of an Old Norse name “wolf”; could also have originated as a pet-form of Lionel or Lyon “lion”

Usage: English

Variants:

  • Lyell (English)

Marian

Marian is probably a name many will associate with Maid Marian, a heroine in English folklore and the love interest of Robin Hood. Marian is an English female name, a variant of Marion, itself a medieval French diminutive of Marie, which ultimately derives from Hebrew Miriam,  a name of uncertain origin though several meanings have been ascribed to it such as “sea of bitterness”, “rebelliousness”, “obstinacy” or “wished for child” from a Hebrew root word. It’s also possible that it might have originated from an Egyptian name either meaning “beloved” from myr or “love” via mr.

It’s also possible that Marian could be considered as a combination of the names Mary and Ann (“favor, grace”)

Marian is also a Polish, Czech, and Romanian male given name, in this case derived from Marianus, a derivative of Marius, a Roman family name on uncertain etymology and meaning. It’s been linked to Mars, the Roman god of war, but also as a masculine form of Maria (the Latinate form of Miriam) or from Latin mare “sea”, maria being its plural form. It’s also been linked to Latin mas “man, male”, but ultimately Marius may have originated from a Sabine origin.

Marian is also a Romanian, English, and French surname originating from the given name.

Origin: uncertain

Meaning: a diminutive of Mary, meaning uncertain though various meanings attributed to it are “sea of bitterness”, “rebelliousness”, “obstinacy”, “wished for child”, “beloved” or “love”; a combination of Mary + Ann “favor, grace”; possibly from Latin “sea” or “man, manly”; may also be related to the Roman god of war, Mars

Usage: English (female only), Polish, Czech, Romanian, German (male)

Variants:

  • Marion (French, English)
  • Marianne (French, English, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish)
  • Marielle (French)
  • Mariette (French)
  • Marise (French)
  • Maryse (French)
  • Manon (French, Dutch)
  • Mariana (Ancient Roman, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian, Bulgarian)

Male forms:

  • Marián (Czech, Slovak, Hungarian)
  • Marion (English)
  • Marianus (Ancient Roman)
  • Marius (Ancient Roman, German, Romanian, Dutch, Norwegian, Danish, French, Lithuanian, English)
  • Mariano (Italian, Spanish, Portuguese)
  • Mario (Italian, Spanish, German, Croatian)

Clarion

Clarion was the name of a medieval trumpet used in the Middle Ages that was loud and shrill. A clarion call is an idiom referring to a call to action. The word comes from Old French claron< Latin clario (trumpet)< Latin clārus meaning “clear, bright, shining; renowned, famous” derived from PIE *kelh₁- (to call, shout), which is the same root word as the name Claire derives from.

Clarion is also a French surname.

Origin: Proto-Indo-European

Meaning: name of a medieval trumpet that was loud and shrill

Usage: English

Placido

Placido is the Italian and Spanish form of Late Latin Placidus meaning “quiet, calm, placid, gentle” (technically Plácido is the Spanish form of Placidus).

Placido is also an Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese surname originating from the given name.

Origin: Proto-Indo-European

Meaning: “quiet, calm, placid, gentle”

Usage: Italian, Spanish, Portuguese

Variants:

  • Placidus (Late Roman)
  • Plácido (Spanish, Portuguese)
  • Placide (French)
  • Placid (English)

Female forms:

  • Placida (Late Roman, Italian)
  • Plácida (Spanish, Portuguese)
  • Placide (French)
  • Placid (English)

Galla

Galla is an Ancient Roman cognomen, the feminine form of Gallus which has a few possible meanings depending on its etymology:

  • the most popular is that it comes from the Latin word gallus meaning “rooster, cock” which ultimately derives from a PIE root word;
  • Gallus was also used to refer to someone who came from Gaul (Gallia in Latin), a region which now comprises France, Belgium, and parts of Germany and Italy; the name derives from Proto-Germanic *walhaz (foreigner) which may have originated from Latin Volcae, the name of a Celtic tribe which may possibly be derived from Proto-Celtic *wolkos (hawk), a word of uncertain origin (the Welsh word gwalch “hawk” derives from this) though perhaps related to Latin falco (falcon). It’s also been linked to Proto-Celtic *ulkʷos (wolf), seemingly because the Volcae fought with huge dogs, but that doesn’t seem as likely;
  • Incidentally, a gallus is also a eunuch priest of the Phrygian goddess Cybele and may be derived from a Phrygian origin;
  • Galla was also the name given to the Oromo people, an ethnic group in Ethiopia and Kenya, a word that the Oromo people consider derogatory;
  • Galla is also a Latin word meaning “oak-apple” (also known as an oak gall), derived from an uncertain origin;
  • Galla is also a surname, originating from the given name Gallus or as a nickname; it’s also an Indian surname, a variant of Kalla which seems to derive from a Telugu source.

Origin: Proto-Indo-European; uncertain

Meaning: “rooster, cock”; originally referred to an inhabitant of Gaul “Gaul” or “Gallic”; also a Latin word “oak-apple”. Also the name of a eunuch priest dedicated to the goddess Cybele, as well as a derogatory word used to refer to the Oromo, an ethnic group in Ethiopia and Kenya

Usage: Ancient Roman, Spanish

Variants:

  • Gala (Spanish)
  • Gal·la (Catalan)

Male forms:

  • Gallus (Ancient Roman)
  • Galo (Spanish)
  • Gallo (Italian)
  • Havel (Czech, Slovak)
  • Gál (Hungarian)
  • Gal (Slovene)
  • Gaweł (Polish)

Hallam

Hallam comes from an English surname, a locational name via Old English halh, healh meaning “corner, angle; nook, recess”; it may also originate from Old Norse hallr “rock, stone; slope, hill” via Proto-Germanic *halluz (rock; stone) via a PIE root word.

Origin: Proto-Indo-European

Meaning: “corner; nook, recess” or “rock, stone; slope”

Usage: English

Variants:

  • Halam (English)
  • Hallum (English)

Corby

Corby comes from an English surname with three possible meanings depending on its etymology:

  • the first is that it comes from a locational origin, any of several places called Corby. It’s made up from Old Norse personal name Kori (which seems to be the Old Norse form of Irish cuire “troop, band, company”) combined with býr (settlement, farm) although the one in Cumbria has its first element derived from Old Irish personal name Corc;
  • it’s also possible Corby originated as a diminutive of French corb meaning “raven”;
  • it may also have originated as variant of Irish surname Corboy, the anglicized spelling of Gaelic Mac Corrbuidhe meaning “son of Corrbuidhe”, the latter a byname made up of Irish corr (crane) and buidhe (yellow)

Origin: Proto-Indo-European; Proto-Celtic

Meaning: “Kori’s farm” or “Kori’s settlement”, or “Corc’s farm/settlement”; a diminutive of French corb “raven”; a variant of Irish surname Corboy “crane+ yellow”

Usage: English

Variants:

Osman

Osman is the Turkish and Kurdish form of Uthman, an Arabic male name meaning “baby bustard” (bustards are large terrestrial birds that live in dry grasslands and steppes). Osman I was the founder of the Ottoman Empire.

Osman is also a surname- a Turkish surname originating from the given name, but it’s also an English surname, a variant of Anglo-Saxon Osmær meaning “god + fame”, made up of Old English os (god) and maer (fame), though it may also be a variant of Osmond “god + protection”.

Origin: Arabic; Proto-Indo-European

Meaning: “baby bustard”; also an English surname “god + fame” or “god + protection”

Usage: Turkish, Kurdish, English

Variants:

  • Uthman (Arabic)
  • Othman (Arabic, Malay)
  • Usman (Urdu)
  • Ousmane (Western African)
  • Cismaan (Eastern African, Somali)
  • Cusmaan (Eastern African, Somali)
  • Osmær (Anglo-Saxon)
  • Osmond (Anglo-Saxon, English)

Amias

Amias is a variant spelling of Amyas which derives from Latin amicus meaning “friend, friendly; amicable” via root word amō (to love) which ultimately derives from a PIE root word, and from which the word amicable comes from.

Amias is also a surname originating from the given name.

Origin: Proto-Indo-European

Meaning: “friend, friendly; amicable”

Usage: English

Pronunciation: a-mye-es (Forvo)

Variants:

  • Amyas (English)
  • Amis (Medieval English, Medieval French)
  • Ames (English)
  • Amys (Old English)
  • Amicus (Ancient Roman

Female forms:

  • Amice (Medieval English)
  • Amica (Ancient Roman)
  • Amity (English)