Karolina

Karolina is the Scandinavian and Slavic form of Caroline, the French form of Carolus which is the Latin form of Charles,the English form of Old High German Karl meaning “man, husband” via Proto-Germanic *karlaz (free man), of uncertain etymology but likely deriving from a PIE origin. It was originally used to refer to men who were not thralls or servants but who still lived at the bottom of society, thus connoting the idea of a “free man”, those who were not tied down to a lord or to the land, able to go wherever they wanted.

Origin: Proto-Germanic

Meaning: “free man”

Usage: Polish, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Hungarian, Slovene, Croatian, Macedonian, Lithuanian, German

Variants:

  • Karolína (Czech, Slovak)
  • Karolīna (Latvian)
  • Carolina (Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Swedish, English)

Daniel

Daniel is the name of several figures in the Bible, including the prophet Daniel, who features in the Book of Daniel in the Old Testament. It comes from a Hebrew name meaning “God is my judge” or “judge of God”, made up of Hebrew dan דָּן (to judge) and el אֵל (god).

Daniel is also a surname originating from the given name.

Origin: Proto-Semitic

Meaning: “God is my judge” or “judge of God”

Usage: English, Hebrew, French, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovene, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Croatian, Armenian, Georgian

Nicknames: Dan, Danny/Dannie

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Variants:

  • Danilo (Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Slovene, Serbian, Croatian)
  • Daniele (Italian)
  • Danijel (Slovene, Croatian, Serbian)
  • Danyal (Arabic, Persian, Urdu, Turkish)
  • Taniel (Armenian)
  • Danel (Basque)
  • Deniel (Breton)
  • Danail (Bulgarian)
  • Daniël (Dutch)
  • Dániel (Hungarian, Faroese)
  • Dánjal (Faroese)
  • Taneli (Finnish)
  • Daníel (Icelandic)
  • Daniels (Latvian)
  • Danielius (Lithuanian)
  • Daniil (Russian)
  • Deiniol (Welsh)

Feminine forms:

  • Danielle (French, English)
  • Danièle (French)
  • Daniela (Bulgarian, Italian, German, Czech, Slovak, Romanian, Portuguese, Spanish, Macedonian, English)
  • Daniella (English)
  • Dana (Romanian, Czech, Slovak, German, Hebrew)
  • Danijela (Slovene, Croatian, Serbian)
  • Daniëlle (Dutch)

Sonia

Sonia is a variant spelling of Sonya, a Russian diminutive of Sofiya, the Russian, Ukrainian, and Bulgarian form of Sophia which comes from Ancient Greek sophía σοφῐ́ᾱ meaning “wisdom”, originally connoting the meaning of skill or cleverness, especially in regards to a craft or someone who was wise and learned; it derives from Ancient Greek sophos which originates from an unknown origin.

Sonia is also a popular Indian female name though in this case it seems to be derived from Sanskrit sonā सोना meaning “gold” via suvárna (meaning “gold” as a noun, and “gold, golden color; bright, brilliant hue; good color” as an adjective), which ultimately derives from a PIE origin.

Origin: unknown; Proto-Indo-European

Meaning: ultimately from Sophia meaning “wisdom”; is also an Indian female name meaning “gold”

Usage: English, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian, Polish, French, Greek, Russian, Indian, Hindi

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Variants:

  • Sonya (Russian, English)
  • Sonja (German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Icelandic, Finnish, Slovene, Serbian, Croatian, Macedonian)
  • Sonje (German)
  • Sofya (Russian)
  • Sophia (Ancient Greek, Greek, English, German)
  • Sofia (Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan, Norwegian, Swedish, German, Italian, Greek, Finnish Estonian, Slovak, Romanian, Russian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian)
  • Sophie (French, English, German, Dutch)
  • Sophy (English)
  • Sofija (Serbian, Croatian, Macedonian, Lithuanian, Latvian)
  • Sofie (German, Danish, Dutch, Czech)
  • Žofie (Czech)
  • Soňa (Czech, Slovak)
  • Sohvi (Finnish)
  • Sopio (Georgian)
  • Szofi (Hungarian)
  • Zsófia (Hungarian)
  • Szófia (Hungarian)
  • Szonja (Hungarian)
  • Soffía (Icelandic)
  • Zofia (Polish)
  • Žofia (Slovak)

Male forms:

  • Soni (Indian, Hindi)

Roland

Roland is the the name of a Frankish paladin who served under Charlemagne the Great, King of the Franks and Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, in the 8th century; according to legend, he is also depicted as Charlemagne‘s nephew. Roland was a popular figure in medieval Europe and there was even an epic poem (or chanson de gets in Old French) written about him, The Song of Roland (La Chanson de Roland) which depicts Roland’s final battle and death.

Roland is composed of Germanic elements hrod (fame) and land (land) essentially meaning “famous land”. I’ve also seen a few sites claim the second element deriving from nand meaning “brave”, but land seems more likely, essentially referring to someone who was famous throughout the land.

Roland is also a surname originating from the given name.

Origin: Proto-Indo-European

Meaning: “famous land” or it could be stretched out to mean “famous throughout the land”

Usage: French, English, German, Swedish, Dutch, Hungarian, Polish, Medieval French

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Variants:

  • Rolland (English)
  • Rowland (English)
  • Rolin (French, English)
  • Roeland (Dutch)
  • Loránd (Hungarian)
  • Lóránt (Hungarian)
  • Hrodland (Ancient Germanic)
  • Orlando (Italian)
  • Rolando (Spanish, Portuguese, Italian)
  • Roldán (Spanish)
  • Roldão (Portuguese)
  • Rolan (Russian)

Feminine forms:

  • Rolande (French)
  • Rolanda (Italian, Spanish, Portuguese)
  • Orlanda (Italian)

Roman

Roman is a male given name derived from Late Latin Romanus meaning “Roman” and “of Rome”, denoting someone who was a citizen of Rome. Rome itself is a name of uncertain origin though there are several possible theories regarding the name’s etymology:

  • according to Roman mythology, Rome’s name derives from the name of its founder and first king, Romulus whose name means “of Rome”, also of unknown meaning;
  • it may be derived from Rumen or Rumon, an archaic name for the Tiber river, which may be derived from PIE root word *srew- (to flow, stream);
  • it may have originated from Etruscan ruma meaning “teat”, perhaps in reference to the wolf that took in and suckled the infants Romulus and Remus in Roman mythology when they were left to die as infants, or it could have been named for the shape of the Palatine and Aventine hills;
  • it’s also possible that it’s from Ancient Greek rhome ῥώμη meaning “strength”, of unknown origin.

Roman is also a surname originating from the given name, though it could have also originated as a locational name for someone who came from Rome or from Italy in general, or who had made a pilgrimage there.

Origin: unknown

Meaning: “Roman, of Rome”, referring to someone who was a citizen of the Roman Empire

Usage: Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Ukrainian, Slovene, Croatian, German, English

Nicknames: Roma (Russian), Ro

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Variants:

  • Romanus (Latin)
  • Romanos (Latin, Greek)
  • Romain (French)
  • Romano (Italian)
  • Romeo (Italian)
  • Romolo (Italian form of Romulus)
  • Romaeus (Latin form of Romeo)
  • Romà (Catalan)
  • Román (Hungarian, Spanish)
  • Romão (Portuguese)

Female forms:

  • Romana (Italian, Polish, Slovene, Croatian, Czech, Slovak, Late Roman)
  • Romola (Italian feminine form of Romulus)
  • Romaine (French, English)
  • Romane (French)
  • Romayne (English)
  • Romána (Hungarian)

Amelia

Amelia is an English female name, a variant of Amalia, the Latinized form of Germanic Amala which comes from Germanic element amal meaning “work”, likely in reference to industrious labor. Amelia has often been confused with Aemilia, an Ancient Roman gens that comes from an entirely different source (the name Emily derives from it).

Incidentally, Amelia is also an Italian and Spanish surname which seems to have originated from Aemilius, an Ancient Roman gens which seems to be derived from Latin aemulus meaning “rival; striving to equal or excel” via Proto-Italic *aimos (imitation) deriving from PIE root word *h₂eym- (to copy, imitate).

Origin: Proto-Germanic; Proto-Indo-European

Meaning: “work, labor”

Usage: English, Spanish, Italian, Polish, Dutch, German

Nicknames: Amy, Lia, Melia, Mila/Meela/Mela, Millie/Milly

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Variants:

  • Amalia (English, Spanish, Italian, Romanian, Dutch, German)
  • Amala (Germanic)
  • Emelia (English)
  • Amilia (English)
  • Amalie (German)
  • Amelie (German)
  • Amelina (Ancient Germanic)
  • Amalija (Lithuanian, Slovene, Croatian)
  • Amálie (Czech)
  • Amélie (French)
  • Émeline (French)
  • Amália (Hungarian, Portuguese, Slovak)
  • Amélia (Portuguese)
  • Emmeline (English)
  • Emmalyn (English)
  • Emmaline (English)

Male forms:

  • Amelio (Italian, Spanish)