Martin

Martin is a shortened form of Ancient Roman Martinus, a derivative of Mars, the Roman god of war (and the Roman counterpart of the Greek god Ares). Mars is a name of uncertain etymology. It’s been linked to Latin mas meaning “man, male” of unknown origin though perhaps derived from a PIE root word meaning young man. However, it’s possible that Mars may be related to an older source, perhaps adopted from the Etruscan god Maris (the god of agriculture and fertility); this might be possible since Mars was also associated with agriculture and fertility.

Mars could also be a contracted form of an older name, Mavors, a cognate of Oscan Mamers. Etruscan seems to be a pre-Indo-European language of which very little is known about; the Etruscan civilization was conquered and than assimilated by the Ancient Romans, and the Etruscan language eventually died out with very little of it left behind. The origin of both names is unknown, but Mavors could possibly be related to Latin mah or margh (to cut) and vor (to turn) essentially meaning “turner of the battle”. Mars could also be derived from the same PIE root as Sanskrit marici “ray of light”, ultimately derived from PIE *mer- meaning “to die; to disappear”. It could also be associated with Latin marceo meaning “to (cause to) wither” and “to (make) shrivel” and Latin marcus meaning “hammer”, but the links are tenuous at best.

Martin is also the name of a type of bird related to the swallow- something about the bird migrating during the time of Martinmas (a festival celebrating St. Martin of Tours, a former Roman soldier who left and became the bishop of Tours). However, as an English surname it may have originated as a topographical name either meaning “settlement by the boundary” via Old English elements mǣre (boundary, border) and tūn (settlement) or “settlement by the lake” with the first element via Old English mere (sea, ocean; lake).

Origin: unknown, possibly Etruscan; Proto-Indo-European

Meaning: from Ancient Roman Martinus “belonging to Mars”, a name of uncertain origin and meaning though various possible meanings attributed to it are “man, male”, “turner of the battle”, perhaps from PIE root word *mer- (to die), or related to Latin marceo “to (cause to) wither” or “to (make) shrivel”, or Latin marcus “hammer”- though all of them are tenuous; Martin is also an English surname, a locational name “settlement by the boundary” or “settlement by the lake”

Usage: English, French, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Estonian, Romanian, Russian, Czech, Slovak, Slovene, Croatian, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Finnish, Spanish

Nicknames: Marty/Martie, Mart (Dutch), Tine (Slovene), Tinek (Slovene), Tin (Croatian), Matxin (Basque)

Variants:

  • Martinus (Ancient Roman, Dutch)
  • Maarten (Dutch)
  • Marten (Dutch)
  • Martijn (Dutch)
  • Merten (German)
  • Mårten (Swedish)
  • Morten (Danish, Norwegian)
  • Márton (Hungarian)
  • Martti (Finnish)
  • Mattin (Basque)
  • Martí (Catalan)
  • Máirtín (Irish)
  • Martino (Italian)
  • Martynas (Lithuanian)
  • Marcin (Polish)
  • Martim (Portuguese)
  • Martinho (Portuguese)
  • Martín (Spanish)
  • Martyn (Welsh, Ukrainian)

Female forms:

  • Martine (French, Dutch, Norwegian, English)
  • Martina (German, Italian, Spanish, Catalan, Czech, Slovak, Croatian, Slovene, English, Dutch, Swedish, Ancient Roman)
  • Martyna (Polish)

Roman

Roman is a male given name derived from Late Latin Romanus meaning “Roman” and “of Rome”, denoting someone who was a citizen of Rome. Rome itself is a name of uncertain origin though there are several possible theories regarding the name’s etymology:

  • according to Roman mythology, Rome’s name derives from the name of its founder and first king, Romulus whose name means “of Rome”, also of unknown meaning;
  • it may be derived from Rumen or Rumon, an archaic name for the Tiber river, which may be derived from PIE root word *srew- (to flow, stream);
  • it may have originated from Etruscan ruma meaning “teat”, perhaps in reference to the wolf that took in and suckled the infants Romulus and Remus in Roman mythology when they were left to die as infants, or it could have been named for the shape of the Palatine and Aventine hills;
  • it’s also possible that it’s from Ancient Greek rhome ῥώμη meaning “strength”, of unknown origin.

Roman is also a surname originating from the given name, though it could have also originated as a locational name for someone who came from Rome or from Italy in general, or who had made a pilgrimage there.

Origin: unknown

Meaning: “Roman, of Rome”, referring to someone who was a citizen of the Roman Empire

Usage: Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Ukrainian, Slovene, Croatian, German, English

Nicknames: Roma (Russian), Ro

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Variants:

  • Romanus (Latin)
  • Romanos (Latin, Greek)
  • Romain (French)
  • Romano (Italian)
  • Romeo (Italian)
  • Romolo (Italian form of Romulus)
  • Romaeus (Latin form of Romeo)
  • Romà (Catalan)
  • Román (Hungarian, Spanish)
  • Romão (Portuguese)

Female forms:

  • Romana (Italian, Polish, Slovene, Croatian, Czech, Slovak, Late Roman)
  • Romola (Italian feminine form of Romulus)
  • Romaine (French, English)
  • Romane (French)
  • Romayne (English)
  • Romána (Hungarian)