Karolina

Karolina is the Scandinavian and Slavic form of Caroline, the French form of Carolus which is the Latin form of Charles,the English form of Old High German Karl meaning “man, husband” via Proto-Germanic *karlaz (free man), of uncertain etymology but likely deriving from a PIE origin. It was originally used to refer to men who were not thralls or servants but who still lived at the bottom of society, thus connoting the idea of a “free man”, those who were not tied down to a lord or to the land, able to go wherever they wanted.

Origin: Proto-Germanic

Meaning: “free man”

Usage: Polish, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Hungarian, Slovene, Croatian, Macedonian, Lithuanian, German

Variants:

  • Karolína (Czech, Slovak)
  • Karolīna (Latvian)
  • Carolina (Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Swedish, English)

Niko

Niko is a masculine name, the Finnish form of Nicholas which means “victory of the people” from Greek Nikolaos made up from Ancient Greek elements nike (victory) and laos (people) both of which derive from a PIE source.

Niko is also the Croatian and Slovene short form of Nikola, the Slavic (male) form of Nicholas. However, Niko can also be used as a short form of Nicholas (also spelled Nico) or its feminine forms Nicole and Nicolette, making it a unisex name.

Niko is also a Japanese female name with a variety of meanings depending on the kanji used:

ni

  • 仁 “benevolence, humanity, charity”
  • 二 “two”
  • “you, your thou, second person”
  • “day, sun, Japan”

ko

  • “child”
  • “lake”
  • 胡 “barbarian, foreign”

There are other meanings depending on the kanji. Written in hiragana it’s にこ.

Origin: Proto-Indo-European; Japanese

Meaning: “victory of the people”; also a Japanese female name with a variety of meanings depending on the kanji used

Usage: Finnish, Croatian, Slovene, Georgian, German, English, Japanese

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Variants:

  • Nico (Italian, Dutch, German, Spanish, Portuguese, English)

Daniel

Daniel is the name of several figures in the Bible, including the prophet Daniel, who features in the Book of Daniel in the Old Testament. It comes from a Hebrew name meaning “God is my judge” or “judge of God”, made up of Hebrew dan דָּן (to judge) and el אֵל (god).

Daniel is also a surname originating from the given name.

Origin: Proto-Semitic

Meaning: “God is my judge” or “judge of God”

Usage: English, Hebrew, French, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovene, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Croatian, Armenian, Georgian

Nicknames: Dan, Danny/Dannie

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Variants:

  • Danilo (Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Slovene, Serbian, Croatian)
  • Daniele (Italian)
  • Danijel (Slovene, Croatian, Serbian)
  • Danyal (Arabic, Persian, Urdu, Turkish)
  • Taniel (Armenian)
  • Danel (Basque)
  • Deniel (Breton)
  • Danail (Bulgarian)
  • Daniël (Dutch)
  • Dániel (Hungarian, Faroese)
  • Dánjal (Faroese)
  • Taneli (Finnish)
  • Daníel (Icelandic)
  • Daniels (Latvian)
  • Danielius (Lithuanian)
  • Daniil (Russian)
  • Deiniol (Welsh)

Feminine forms:

  • Danielle (French, English)
  • Danièle (French)
  • Daniela (Bulgarian, Italian, German, Czech, Slovak, Romanian, Portuguese, Spanish, Macedonian, English)
  • Daniella (English)
  • Dana (Romanian, Czech, Slovak, German, Hebrew)
  • Danijela (Slovene, Croatian, Serbian)
  • Daniëlle (Dutch)

Martin

Martin is a shortened form of Ancient Roman Martinus, a derivative of Mars, the Roman god of war (and the Roman counterpart of the Greek god Ares). Mars is a name of uncertain etymology. It’s been linked to Latin mas meaning “man, male” of unknown origin though perhaps derived from a PIE root word meaning young man. However, it’s possible that Mars may be related to an older source, perhaps adopted from the Etruscan god Maris (the god of agriculture and fertility); this might be possible since Mars was also associated with agriculture and fertility.

Mars could also be a contracted form of an older name, Mavors, a cognate of Oscan Mamers. Etruscan seems to be a pre-Indo-European language of which very little is known about; the Etruscan civilization was conquered and than assimilated by the Ancient Romans, and the Etruscan language eventually died out with very little of it left behind. The origin of both names is unknown, but Mavors could possibly be related to Latin mah or margh (to cut) and vor (to turn) essentially meaning “turner of the battle”. Mars could also be derived from the same PIE root as Sanskrit marici “ray of light”, ultimately derived from PIE *mer- meaning “to die; to disappear”. It could also be associated with Latin marceo meaning “to (cause to) wither” and “to (make) shrivel” and Latin marcus meaning “hammer”, but the links are tenuous at best.

Martin is also the name of a type of bird related to the swallow- something about the bird migrating during the time of Martinmas (a festival celebrating St. Martin of Tours, a former Roman soldier who left and became the bishop of Tours). However, as an English surname it may have originated as a topographical name either meaning “settlement by the boundary” via Old English elements mǣre (boundary, border) and tūn (settlement) or “settlement by the lake” with the first element via Old English mere (sea, ocean; lake).

Origin: unknown, possibly Etruscan; Proto-Indo-European

Meaning: from Ancient Roman Martinus “belonging to Mars”, a name of uncertain origin and meaning though various possible meanings attributed to it are “man, male”, “turner of the battle”, perhaps from PIE root word *mer- (to die), or related to Latin marceo “to (cause to) wither” or “to (make) shrivel”, or Latin marcus “hammer”- though all of them are tenuous; Martin is also an English surname, a locational name “settlement by the boundary” or “settlement by the lake”

Usage: English, French, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Estonian, Romanian, Russian, Czech, Slovak, Slovene, Croatian, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Finnish, Spanish

Nicknames: Marty/Martie, Mart (Dutch), Tine (Slovene), Tinek (Slovene), Tin (Croatian), Matxin (Basque)

Variants:

  • Martinus (Ancient Roman, Dutch)
  • Maarten (Dutch)
  • Marten (Dutch)
  • Martijn (Dutch)
  • Merten (German)
  • Mårten (Swedish)
  • Morten (Danish, Norwegian)
  • Márton (Hungarian)
  • Martti (Finnish)
  • Mattin (Basque)
  • Martí (Catalan)
  • Máirtín (Irish)
  • Martino (Italian)
  • Martynas (Lithuanian)
  • Marcin (Polish)
  • Martim (Portuguese)
  • Martinho (Portuguese)
  • Martín (Spanish)
  • Martyn (Welsh, Ukrainian)

Female forms:

  • Martine (French, Dutch, Norwegian, English)
  • Martina (German, Italian, Spanish, Catalan, Czech, Slovak, Croatian, Slovene, English, Dutch, Swedish, Ancient Roman)
  • Martyna (Polish)

Leo

Leo comes from the Latin word meaning “lion” via Ancient Greek leon which derives from an uncertain origin; it’s possible it could have been adopted from a non Indo-European source, perhaps from Proto-Semitic *labiʾ-, *labuʾ- (lion). The name might have originated as a nickname for someone who was courageous and brave.

Leo is the name of a constellation representing to the Ancient Greeks the Nemean lion killed by the Greek hero Herakles as part of his twelve labors. Leo is also a Zodiac sign belonging to those born between July 22nd to August 23rd; apparently those born under this sign are stubborn, loyal and trustworthy, assured, confident and ambitious, but prone to arrogance, jealousy, and bossiness.

Leo could also be used as a nickname for names such as Leonidas (an Ancient Greek name meaning “son of the lion” or “son of a lion”), Leopold (a Germanic name meaning “bold people”), and Leonard (meaning “brave lion”), or any name beginning with Leo.

Origin: uncertain, possibly from a Proto-Semitic source

Meaning: “lion”

Usage: Late Roman, English, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, Croatian

Variants:

  • Leon (Greek, Ancient Greek, English, German, Polish, Slovene, Croatian, Dutch)
  • Leontios (Ancient Greek)
  • Leontius (Ancient Greek, Latin)
  • Levon (Armenian)
  • Leoš (Czech)
  • Léo (French)
  • Léon (French)
  • Léonce (French form of Leontios)
  • Lionel (French diminutive of Léon; English)
  • Levan (Georgian)
  • Leone (Italian)
  • Leonzio (Italian form of Leontios)
  • Leonas (Lithuanian)
  • Lef (Polish cognate of Lev)
  • Lev (Russian)
  • Leonti (Russian)
  • Leontiy (Russian)
  • Leonty (Russian)
  • Lyov (Russian)
  • León (Spanish)
  • Leoncio (Spanish)
  • Leonius (Late Roman)

Female forms:

  • Leona (English, German, Czech)
  • Leola (English)
  • Leone (French, English)
  • Leontina (Italian, Late Roman)
  • Leonia (Late Roman)
  • Leonie (French, German, Dutch, English)
  • Léonie (French)
  • Léontine (French)
  • Léone (French)
  • Leontýna (Czech)
  • Leontyne (English)

Dora

Dora is often used as a shortened form of names ending or beginning with dora such as Theodora (meaning “god’s gift”), Isadora (“gift of Isis“), Pandora (“all-giving”, “all gifts” or “all-gifted”), Medora (possibly a shortened form of Greek Metrodora “mother’s gift”), Nymphodora (“gift of the nymph” or “gift of the bride”), Menodora (“gift of the moon”), or Dorothy, Dorothea (“gift of god”), etc.

Dora could also simply be used as a given name on its own simply meaning “gift” which comes from Ancient Greek doron (gift) derived from a PIE root word.

Dora is also an Old English word meaning “bee, bumblebee” or “humming insect” via Proto-Germanic *durô (bumblebee, humming insect) derived from a PIE root word. For fans of Harry Potter, dumbledore is a dialectical word from Hampshire, Cornwall, for a bumblebee.

Origin: Proto-Indo-European

Meaning: often a nickname for names beginning or ending with Dora, or could simply be used on its own, simply meaning “gift; is also an Old English word for “bee, bumblebee”

Usage: English, Spanish, Italian, Greek, Croatian, Serbian, Dutch

Variants:

  • Dory (English)
  • Dorie (English)
  • Doree (English)
  • Doria (English)
  • Doreen (English)
  • Dorina (English, Hungarian, Romanian)

Roman

Roman is a male given name derived from Late Latin Romanus meaning “Roman” and “of Rome”, denoting someone who was a citizen of Rome. Rome itself is a name of uncertain origin though there are several possible theories regarding the name’s etymology:

  • according to Roman mythology, Rome’s name derives from the name of its founder and first king, Romulus whose name means “of Rome”, also of unknown meaning;
  • it may be derived from Rumen or Rumon, an archaic name for the Tiber river, which may be derived from PIE root word *srew- (to flow, stream);
  • it may have originated from Etruscan ruma meaning “teat”, perhaps in reference to the wolf that took in and suckled the infants Romulus and Remus in Roman mythology when they were left to die as infants, or it could have been named for the shape of the Palatine and Aventine hills;
  • it’s also possible that it’s from Ancient Greek rhome ῥώμη meaning “strength”, of unknown origin.

Roman is also a surname originating from the given name, though it could have also originated as a locational name for someone who came from Rome or from Italy in general, or who had made a pilgrimage there.

Origin: unknown

Meaning: “Roman, of Rome”, referring to someone who was a citizen of the Roman Empire

Usage: Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Ukrainian, Slovene, Croatian, German, English

Nicknames: Roma (Russian), Ro

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Variants:

  • Romanus (Latin)
  • Romanos (Latin, Greek)
  • Romain (French)
  • Romano (Italian)
  • Romeo (Italian)
  • Romolo (Italian form of Romulus)
  • Romaeus (Latin form of Romeo)
  • Romà (Catalan)
  • Román (Hungarian, Spanish)
  • Romão (Portuguese)

Female forms:

  • Romana (Italian, Polish, Slovene, Croatian, Czech, Slovak, Late Roman)
  • Romola (Italian feminine form of Romulus)
  • Romaine (French, English)
  • Romane (French)
  • Romayne (English)
  • Romána (Hungarian)